In this article, you will know all about National register citizen commonly known as NRC in Assam. And, also discussed about the background of NRC.
So, before understanding this issue you need to understand some terms like:
- Citizenship, persecution, and immigrant.
- Migration in the Indian Subcontinent.
- Special Case of North East.
Citizenship – It is the position or status of being a citizen of a country. It is a very general term. You all know about it very well.
Persecution – It is a very important word. Persecution is a hostility or operation and ill-treatment of those people whose race or political or religious beliefs don’t align with a community. Here community may be the major community or the powerful community.
For example – In Myanmar, Rohingyas are the persecuted community. In China, Tibetans and Uyghur Muslims are the persecuted communities.
So, these are the persecuted communities or oppressed communities. To protect themselves from the operation, these persecuted communities have to leave that country and go to any other country.
Immigrant – Today, If I go and start living in any other country (let’s say Canada) permanently then I will be called an immigrant of Canada.
So, an Immigrant is a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country.
Migration in Indian subcontinents
Here we will see when migration occurred in Indian subcontinents historically. Especially talk about the migration in India. Here is the full list with description:
12-20th century: Parsi persecution in Iran. From Iran, many Parsis flee to the Gujarat coast. It was an important wave of migration. Today also you will find many Parsis in Gujarat and Maharashtra region.
1947: Historically, India’s top source of immigrants and the largest migration wave was of 1947 partition of India. Under which two different countries India and Pakistan were formed. And, Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan. This migration was a two ways migration. Many people came to India and also from India many people went to Pakistan and Bangladesh. But, the number of people coming to India was more as compared to outgoing people.
1971: Bangladesh Liberation War. The next was of migration arise during the Bangladesh separation from Pakistan. In this wave, many people of Bangladesh came to India. The majority of people from Bangladesh migrated to the northeastern part of India. This is what our discussion in this article is.
1959: It was a relatively minor way of migration. When china persecuted Tibetans and Tibetans flee and settled in Himachal Pradesh, India.
1979: Soviet-Afghan War. In this war, many people from Afghanistan flee to India.
1980-90s: Due to the Sri Lanka Civil War, the Tamilian population flees to India
2015- Till: Rohingyas Migration. It was a major wave but still at present some Rohingyas from Myanmar migrate to India.
Above mentioned were some major migrations in historical perspective. So, it is very important to know about migrations before jumping to our main topic.
Special Case of North East
This is the background to know the reason for violent protests in the northeast.
In the 1920s, this was the beginning of Migration from Bengal to the North East. It was more accelerated during 1947-1971 means from the partition to the Bangladesh liberation war. During this time, a major migration occurs in the North East especially in Assam which increases migrants.
In 1978, it was the time of election in Assam. The native people of Assam came to know that there are large numbers of migrants in their state. Due to which they start their protest against these migrants.
1979-1985: Assam Agitation War led by All Assams student union (AASU). AASU was a student’s community who did this protest. After these protests, the Government comes up with the Assam Accords.
1985: Assam Accords. In this Assam, Accords has taken many important decisions. One of the most important decision was “citizenship will be given to all those migrants from Bangladesh who came to Assam till the midnight of March 24, 1971″. And those who came after will be deported.
So, this decision was taken in Assam Accords.
When Assam Accords was signed the protest was stopped . But, due to the slow process of the government the protest again started for the reason that the government is doing nothing.
Finally, in 1999, the central government decided to update NRC to fulfill the demand of Assam Accords.
Now let’s understand about NRC.
What is NRC and NRC in Assam
The full form of NRC is National Register of Citizens. NRC is a kind of register of all Indian citizens. It was prepared based on the 1951 census and was not updated since then.
NRC was first updated in 2019. It was updated only for Assam because the Supreme Court asked the Assam Government to comply with the Assam Accord.
Under this, criteria for being an Indian citizen were those names were in NRC (1951 census) or any of the electoral rolls up till March 1971.
Those who came after March 1971 will be repatriated or deported to their source country.
From the government’s point of view, the legal provisions of NRC are the part of the citizenship act 1955. NRC is a register, which includes you on the list as a citizen-based on certain documents and proofs.
If you don’t have those documents, then you will not be included in this register and you will be deported.
On 31 Aug 2019 government released the final version of NRC. In which more than 9 lakhs people living in Assam were not on that list.
I want you to share your thoughts in the comment section.